Lauderdale County Jail Criminal Court Process

Search for an Inmate in Lauderdale County

Criminal Court Process for Lauderdale County Mississippi

Information on the criminal court process for offenders arrested in Lauderdale County Mississippi and booked into the Lauderdale County Jail. From the arrest to the sentencing and everything in between.

Lauderdale County Jail Criminal Court Process

Criminal Court Process for Lauderdale County Mississippi

Lauderdale County Mississippi Criminal Court System - Definitions

It might be helpful to define some words that will be used on this site, when explaining the Mississippi Court System and how it works. The definitions on this site are for general information and not legal advice. It is always preferred to follow information given by your attorney or local authorities.

If you scroll down below this content, and the listing of the courts in Lauderdale County, you will find a simple flowchart diagram and a video that will help you visualize the stages of the Criminal Court Process.

Arrest is when Mississippi, Lauderdale County or local police take a person into custody and start the legal process. The arrested person may or may not be immediately jailed. 

In less serious crimes, the person may only be given a citation ordering that they appear in municipal or Lauderdale County court on a certain date. In cases involving more serious crimes, the person is usually placed in the county jail until an arraignment, or a judge decides the next step.

Booking is when the Lauderdale County sheriff or local police gather information such as the detainee’s name, address and why the person is being arrested. Booking also includes fingerprinting, criminal history, investigation, and verification of identity. Bail for lower-level crimes may be set right after booking so the arrested can “bail or bond out” before being detained.

The prosecution, sometimes called “the government” or “the people” or “the state” is the side that presses the charges and seeks punishment for the offense. These are attorneys that work for the state of Mississippi, Lauderdale County or a city or town.  The prosecuting attorney for Lauderdale County or the district is called the District Attorney or Assistant District Attorney. A U.S. Attorney prosecutes federal cases.  

Jurisdiction is an important term in the court system that means whether a court has the obligation or duty or right to handle a case.  For example, if you run a red light in your town or city, a municipal court would likely have jurisdiction over your case, but the next town or city over would not have jurisdiction over your case.  If you attempted to flee from police when they attempted to stop you after you ran the red light, it becomes a more serious crime, and the municipal court might not have jurisdiction so you might be assigned to a higher-level court that has jurisdiction over the more serious crime.  Jurisdiction varies from state to state and sometimes county to county.

Arraignment is when a judge determines whether the charges are supported by the prosecution’s initial evidence and tells the arrested what they are charged with, and the person says whether they are guilty or not guilty. At this time, the person is called the defendant, and the opposing side is called the prosecution. If there is reason to believe that the arrested is guilty, the judge will set bail conditions or send the defendant to jail or release them ROR (release on recognizances). An arraignment is not a trial, and the defendant is entitled to a trial within a reasonable amount of time after the arraignment.

Bail is money paid that is held by the Lauderdale County or municipal court to make sure that the arrested does not flee the area before their trial. Bail amounts and other conditions are determined at the arraignment. Once the case is over, the bail money is returned to the defendant. If a person does not pay bail, they remain in the Lauderdale County Jail until their trial.  

Bail can be denied if the court feels that the arrested would be a danger to others if released. Sometimes the court decides that there is a good chance that the arrested will show up for trial and not flee so they are released on their own promise, or recognizance without having to pay bail.

A bond proceeding is the determination of how much bail is to be paid and usually happens at the same time as an arraignment. During bond proceedings, the defendant can have an attorney present but does not have the right to an attorney. A judge or court officer in the or municipal court sets bail. Judges in Mississippi rely on a statewide bail schedule, which sets out a recommended range of bail amounts for different offenses. Judges in Mississippi can still exercise discretion in setting bail above the recommended range.

A personal recognizance bond is a bond where someone representing the defendant signs paperwork promising to pay the money if the defendant does not show up to court. If the defendant does not show, the full amount will be due and the people who signed the paperwork will be responsible for paying the court.  

A secured appearance bond is when the entire bail amount is paid. 

An unsecured appearance bond or cash deposit bond is a bond where 10% of the bail/bond amount or $250 cash (whichever is greater) is paid to the clerk of the circuit or county justice or municipal court. This deposit is usually not returned to the defendant as it is used to cover court costs, restitution or fines.

A property bond is a bond in which the bond is pledged in land or home real estate (mobile homes are not accepted).  Usually, the property must be in Lauderdale County, and it must be worth more than the amount of the bond.

Surety bond is when defendant pays a percentage of the bond amount (usually 10%) to a court or professional bail bond company licensed to do business in Mississippi, . The bondsman then signs the bond on behalf of the defendant. The defendant does not receive any of the money back. If the bondsman feels the defendant is a flight risk, they can refuse to give a bond or charge a higher fee. For example, a bondsman may determine a defendant is a flight risk if they are from a state other than Mississippi.

It is always important to have family involvement after being arrested.  Not only can they make calls and communicate on your behalf (not all bond companies will accept collect calls), but family support will show the court that there are people who will make sure that the defendant makes it to court, not only for the defendant’s own good, but because they may have signed bond paperwork and responsible to pay if the defendant does not show in court. Chances of obtaining a bond from a bond company or clerk of court are better if family is involved.  

(There have been phone scams where a bond company calls and informs a person that their family member has been arrested and they ask for financial information.  A bondsman will not call asking for money without involvement of the arrested.)

A criminal defense attorney (also called lawyer or counsel) is hired or retained to represent the arrested as early as possible after the arrest. If there is a chance that the case might go to trial and the defendant cannot afford an attorney, the 6th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution requires that the court provide an attorney. This is called indigent representation, and a public defender or contracted attorney would represent the defendant in all proceedings. Indigent representation is only available misdemeanor and felony cases that could result in jail time, juvenile cases, and certain appeal cases. 

In Mississippi, the local municipalities and counties pay the majority of public defense costs. Local governments must rely on revenue from court fees to pay for criminal justice funding and for this reason, there are inconsistencies throughout Mississippi regarding indigent representation. Because the state of Mississippi’s low tax revenues, local governments must rely more heavily on court fees charged by the courts. Contracted attorneys working on a fixed rate are the primary source of public defense. They are paid the same regardless of the amount of work they do on a case.

For less serious cases or civil cases, there are pro bono volunteers who volunteer legal services for free or for a small fee. They often will hold clinics to teach people how to represent themselves in court or expunge their record which means to legally erase or eliminate a criminal or arrest record from public view. This website provides contact information for pro bono services in Mississippi.

A district court can refer to the first level of the legal system, or a minor court. District courts are in the community.  A district court can also refer to a U.S. Federal District Court that hears federal cases. There are two U.S. federal district courts in Mississippi, with offices throughout the state. It is important that you check the address of the court you are to appear in rather than to ask someone because that person might give you directions to the wrong “district” court. Being late to court can land you in custody as well.

Pretrial proceeding is the process where both sides (prosecution and defense) gather information, interview witnesses, request records, videos etc. Pretrial proceedings also include communications with the judge assigned to the case and these appearances are either in person or by on-line conferencing. Some pretrial proceedings may not require a defendant’s appearance, allowing an attorney to appear in their place. The information that is gathered is called discovery and both sides must share the information that they have gathered.  This information does not include conversations between the arrested and their attorney.

Most cases do not go to trial because both sides reach a plea deal, where both sides try to reach a reasonable punishment based on what was learned in the pretrial proceedings.  A plea deal can only happen if the accused person admits they are guilty in exchange for a lighter punishment.  The reason they must admit guilt is because it would not be fair to punish someone who claims they are not guilty.  There are times in plea bargaining when the prosecution agrees to give a lighter sentence in exchange for information leading to the arrest of a more serious criminal related to the crime.  

Trial is where both sides share their information in front of a judge or a judge and jury. After listening to all the evidence, the judge or jury decides the verdict which is whether the person is guilty or not guilty. If a court has only a judge hearing both sides, it is called a bench trial.  If a jury is selected, it is called a jury trial.  If the defendant is found not guilty, they are released.  If they are found to be guilty, the next step is sentencing.

Sentencing is the punishment that the judge decides the person should get. This could be jail or prison time, fines, community service, probation, or a combination.

Appeal is asking for a higher court to hear the case again at an appellate court.  If the accused person thinks something went wrong at trial or has new information that was not available during the trial or that the sentence is too harsh, the defense attorney can ask for an appeal. It is not unusual for an appeal when there is a long jail sentence, but an appeal can be denied if the appellate court feels that the original trial or sentencing was fair.

Mississippi Felony vs Misdemeanor

In Mississippi, misdemeanors and felonies are not divided into classes, rather the criminal statutes of Mississippi offer penalties for each individual crime. If the punishment does not include time in state prison, then it is considered a misdemeanor. The rules are a bit confusing because when the case is presented to a jury or judge and a possible sentence is jail or prison time, it is considered a felony, regardless of the actual sentence. In some cases, a judge is permitted to sentence beyond the maximum penalty for a crime.

Capital felonies are punishable by a maximum of 20 years or more and a $25,000 up to no bail allowed.  Crimes would include manslaughter or a crime involving loss of human life. Drug distribution and trafficking and other non-capital felonies are punishable by 10-20 years imprisonment and up to $250,000 fine.

Misdemeanors are punishable by a maximum of 1 year in jail and/or fines of up to $2000.

The Lauderdale County Clerk of Court is an elected official whose responsibilities for Criminal Court’s administrative issues include receiving criminal warrants, receiving bail, creating the trial schedule, receiving fees, fines and maintaining court records.

A warrant is used to get someone to appear in court or to law enforcement.  There must be good reason to believe that the person is involved in a crime. The warrant gives authority to arrest the person and search for evidence for the investigation of the crime. 

A criminal summons is issued to request that a person appear in court at a particular time and date.  It does not involve an arrest.  A traffic ticket, summary citation or lesser misdemeanor could be considered a summons if you are given a court date.

A summary citation, commonly referred to as a ticket, is a criminal summons by a law enforcement officer either in person or via mail accusing the defendant of a minor offense, stating potential fine, listing the court having jurisdiction and instructions for addressing the issue. Defendants may or may not be required to appear in court or handle the matter by entering a plea via mail.

Fines are usually paid to the municipal or district dourt or clerk of court and payment methods can be found on the district court or Lauderdale County Clerk of Court website. If you do not pay your fine on time, you can lose your driver’s license, must pay additional fees or even have a warrant for your arrest.  It is important to read the instructions on the ticket issued by the police officer or court at the time of your arrest. For a parking ticket or summary citation, the fine amount and how to send payment should be on the ticket. 

Mississippi Criminal Court System - How it Works

In Mississippi, the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals handle cases that are being appealed from “lower courts”.  The lower courts in Mississippi include Municipal court, Justice court, County court, Circuit court and Chancery court. Mississippi also offers an Intervention court.

Municipal courts are the city and town courts and handle violations of municipal ordinances (city laws), traffic violations, parking violations and criminal misdemeanor offenses that occur within the city or towns police jurisdiction.  The judges can conduct preliminary hearings for less serious crimes then the case will be transferred to the county court.

Justice courts handle misdemeanor criminal cases and any traffic offense that are not seen in municipal court because the crime occurs outside a municipality. Justice court judges may conduct bond hearings and preliminary hearings in felony criminal cases and may issue search warrants. The cases are then transferred to circuit courts.

County courts can conduct preliminary hearings that are then handed to the circuit court and conversely, the county court can be given non-serious cases from the circuit court. County court judges can issue search warrants and can work with the justice courts in all matters.  County courts in Mississippi handle juvenile cases and the county court judge serves as a youth court judge in the county and chancery courts. In Mississippi, a juvenile is considered an individual under 18 years old.  

Chancery courts deal mostly with civil matters except for juvenile cases in counties that do not have a county court.  In the case when the chancery court hears a juvenile case, the chancellor may appoint a private practice attorney to act as a youth court referee to hear juvenile matters.

Circuit courts in Mississippi handle felony criminal prosecutions.  Circuit courts can also hear appeals from the county, justice and municipal courts.

Specialty courts or problem-solving courts are being adopted in many states to handle cases that involve non-violent and first-time offender cases in a way to where the offender can retain a job or responsibilities while following specific orders of the court as returned court appearances, periodic evaluations or testing for substances. Mississippi offers drug court and it is important to ask if you qualify, especially for first time or youth offenders.

Court of Appeals hears appeal cases primarily from circuit court and can hear cases from lower courts under special circumstances.

The Mississippi Supreme Court is like our United States’ Supreme Court because it has a panel of judges that rule on matters that have to do with someone’s constitutional rights or policies and laws. The Mississippi State Supreme Court deals with the state constitution or laws or policies. Sometimes the Supreme Court will hear criminal cases on appeal when there is a question on the state laws or procedures that lead to the appeal.  

The criminal cases are usually referred from the district courts of appeal.

FEDERAL COURT

Federal Court deals with crimes involving violations of United States laws.  Federal crimes include federal drug trafficking, federal tax evasion and fraud that crossed state lines and include crimes that occur on federal property as post offices or federal buildings.  

Cases involving crimes that involve the FBI or DEA or Immigration agencies are federal crimes. Terrorism is a federal crime. 

There are some differences in the Federal court system as compared to the Mississippi state court system. For example, the attorneys who work for the courts are called United States Attorneys and Federal judges are called District Court Judges (not to be confused by local state district courts).  

Federal Magistrate Judges hear the case early on, but they do not decide on the cases at a trial like the Federal District Court Judges. In a federal case, a grand jury is used for indictments.

There are two U.S. Federal Judicial Districts in Mississippi.

Courts

MERIDIAN COURT
510 22ND AVE S
MERIDIAN MS, 39301
601-485-1837
CHANCELLORS OFFICE
500 CONSTITUTION AVE
MERIDIAN MS, 39301
601-482-9729
LAUDERDALE CIRCUIT COURT RPRTR
500 CONSTITUTION AVE
MERIDIAN MS, 39301
601-482-9783

Search for an Inmate in Lauderdale County