Birmingham City Jail Criminal Court Process

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Criminal Court Process for Jefferson County Alabama

Information on the criminal court process for offenders arrested in Jefferson County Alabama and booked into the Birmingham City Jail. From the arrest to the sentencing and everything in between.

Birmingham City Jail Criminal Court Process

Criminal Court Process for Jefferson County Alabama

Jefferson County Alabama Criminal Court System - Definitions

It might be helpful to define some words that will be used on this site, when explaining the Alabama Court System and how it works. The definitions on this site are for general information and not legal advice. It is always preferred to follow information given by your attorney or local authorities.

If you scroll down below this content, and the listing of the courts in Jefferson County, you will find a simple flowchart diagram and a video that will help you visualize the stages of the Criminal Court Process.

Arrest is when Alabama, Jefferson County or local police take a person into custody and start the legal process. The arrested person may or may not be immediately jailed. 

In less serious crimes, the person may only be given a citation ordering that they appear in municipal or Jefferson County court on a certain date. In cases involving more serious crimes, the person is usually placed in the county jail until an arraignment, or a judge decides the next step.

Booking is when the Jefferson County sheriff or local police gather information such as the detainee’s name, address and why the person is being arrested. Booking also includes fingerprinting, criminal history, investigation and verification of identity.

The prosecution, sometimes called “the government” or “the people” or “the state” is the side that press the charges and seeks punishment for the offense. These are attorneys that work for the state of Alabama, Jefferson County or a city or town. The prosecuting attorney for the Jefferson County or the district is called the District Attorney or Assistant District Attorney. A U.S. Attorney or Assistant U.S. Attorney prosecutes federal cases.  

Jurisdiction is an important term in the court system that means whether a court has the obligation or duty or right to handle a case.  For example, if you run a red light in your town or city, a municipal court would likely have jurisdiction over your case, but the next town or city over would not have jurisdiction over your case.  If you attempted to flee from police when they attempted to stop you after you ran the red light, it becomes a more serious crime, and the municipal court might not have jurisdiction so you might be assigned to a higher-level court that has jurisdiction over the more serious crime.  Jurisdiction varies from state to state and sometimes county to county.

Arraignment is when a judge determines whether or not the charges are supported by the prosecution’s initial evidence and tells the arrested what they are charged with, and the person says whether they are guilty or not guilty. At this time, the person is called the defendant, and the opposing side is called the prosecution. If there is reason to believe that the arrested is guilty, the judge will set bail conditions or send the defendant to jail or release them ROR (release on recognizances). An arraignment is not a trial, and the defendant is entitled to a trial within a reasonable amount of time after the arraignment.

Bail is money paid that is held by the Jefferson County or municipal court to make sure that the arrested does not flee the area before their trial. The bail amounts and other conditions are determined at the arraignment. Once the case is over, the bail money is returned to the defendant. If a person does not pay bail, they remain in the Jefferson County jail until their trial.  Bail can be denied if the court feels that the arrested would be a danger to others if released. Sometimes the court decides that there is a good chance that the arrested will show up for trial and not flee so they are released on their own promise, or recognizance without having to pay bail.

A bond proceeding is the determination of how much bail is to be paid and usually happens at the same time as an arraignment. During bond proceedings, the defendant can have an attorney present but does not have the right to an attorney. Jailors, law enforcement and prosecutors do not have authority to set bail, a judge or court officer in the county or municipal court sets bail. Judges in Alabama rely on a statewide bail schedule, which sets out a recommended range of bail amounts for different offenses. Judges can still exercise discretion in setting bail above or below the recommended range.

It is always important to have family involvement after being arrested.  Not only can they make calls and communicate on your behalf (not all bond companies will accept collect calls), but family support will show the court that there are people who will make sure that the defendant makes it to court, not only for the defendant’s own good, but because they may have signed bond paperwork and responsible to pay if the defendant does not show in court. Chances of obtaining a bond from a bond company or clerk of court are better if family is involved.  

(There have been phone scams to where a bond company calls and informs a person that their family member has been arrested and they ask for financial information.  A bondsman will not call asking for money without involvement of the arrested.)

Bonding out is a term used when the arrested has the money to pay for their own bail.  Bail is the amount of money to pay the court and bond usually refers to the loan but both are used interchangeably.

A judicial public bond or personal recognizance bond is a bond where someone representing the defendant signs paperwork promising to pay the money if the defendant does not show up to court. If the defendant does not show, the full amount will be due and the people who signed the paperwork will be responsible to pay the court.  Sometimes the court decides that there is a good chance that the arrested will show up for trial and not flee so they are released on their own promise, or recognizance.  

Cash percentage in lieu of bonds.  If the bond order permits, the defendant pays a percentage of the amount, (sometimes up to 100%) to the court, which then holds the money until the case is over. The amount is returned if the defendant is acquitted or the case is dismissed, or it can be used toward paying any court fines incurred by the defendant.

Surety Bond is when defendant pays a percentage of the bond amount (usually 10–15%) to a professional bondsman or bail bond company licensed to do business in Alabama, Jefferson County. The bondsman then signs the bond on behalf of the defendant. The defendant does not receive any of the money back. If the bondsman feels the defendant is a flight risk, they can refuse to give a bond or charge a higher fee. For example, a bondsman may determine a defendant is a flight risk if they are from a state other than Alabama.

A Property Bond is a bond in which the bond is pledged in land or home real estate (mobile homes are not accepted).  Usually, the property must be in the county or Alabama and it must be worth at least the amount of the bond.

An Unsecured Bond is when the defendant is released without paying bail upfront, but they must pay the full amount if they do not appear in court.

A Secured Bond is when the defendant pays a portion of the bail up front. If they show to court,
They would get the money back and if they don’t show up to court, would have to pay the entire bail amount.

A criminal defense attorney (also called lawyer or counsel) is hired or retained to represent the arrested as early as possible after the arrest. If there is a chance that the case might go to trial and the defendant cannot afford an attorney, the 6th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution requires that the court provide an attorney. This is called indigent representation and a public defender or assigned attorney would represent the defendant in all proceedings. Indigent representation is only available misdemeanor and felony cases that could result in jail time, juvenile cases and certain appeal cases. Seven counties in Alabama have a public defender’s office. In counties that don’t have a public defender’s office, judges can appoint private attorneys when a defendant can’t afford counsel. The Office of Indigent Defense Services then pays that attorney. The time to ask for indigent representation is as soon as possible to avoid errors while not represented.

For less serious cases or civil cases, there are pro bono volunteers who volunteer legal services for free or for a small fee. They often will hold clinics to teach people how to represent themselves in court or expunge their record which means to legally erase or eliminate a criminal or arrest record from public view.

This website provides contact information for pro bono services in Alabama:

Many courts will provide forms and help for people who want to represent themselves, called pro se.  

Here is a link for self-help in the Alabama courts:

A district court can refer to the first level of the legal system, or a minor court. District courts are located in the community.  A district court can also refer to a U.S. Federal District Court that hears federal cases. There are three U.S. federal district courts in Alabama with offices throughout the state. It is important that you check the address of the court you are to appear in rather than to ask someone because that person might give you directions to the wrong “district” court. Being late to court can land you in custody as well.

Pretrial proceeding is the process where both sides (prosecution and defense) gather information, interview witnesses, request records, videos etc. Pretrial proceedings also include communications with the judge assigned to the case and these appearances are either in person or by on-line conferencing. Some pretrial proceedings may not require a defendant’s appearance, allowing an attorney to appear in their place. The information that is gathered is called discovery and both sides must share the information that they have gathered.  This information does not include conversations between the arrested and their attorney.

Most cases do not go to trial because both sides reach a plea deal, where both sides try to reach a reasonable punishment based on what was learned in the pretrial proceedings.  A plea deal can only happen if the accused person admits they are guilty in exchange for a lighter punishment.  The reason they must admit guilt is because it would not be fair to punish someone who claims they are not guilty.  There are times in plea bargaining when the prosecution agrees to give a lighter sentence in exchange for information leading to the arrest of more serious criminal related to the crime.  

Trial is where both sides share their information in front of a judge or a judge and jury. After listening to all the evidence, the judge or jury decides the verdict which is whether if the person is guilty or not guilty. If a court has only a judge hearing both sides, it is called a bench trial.  If a jury is selected, it is called a jury trial.  If the defendant is found non-guilty, they are released.  If they are found to be guilty, the next step is sentencing.

Sentencing is the punishment that the judge decides the person should get. This could be jail or prison time, fines, community service, probation, or a combination.

Appeal is asking for a higher court to hear the case again at an appellate court.  If the accused person thinks something went wrong at trial or has new information that was not available during the trial or that the sentence is too harsh, the defense attorney can ask for an appeal. It is not unusual for an appeal when there is a long jail sentence, but an appeal can be denied if the appellate court feels that the original trial or sentencing was fair.

Alabama Misdemeanor vs Felony

In Alabama, a misdemeanor is divided into Class A, Class B and Class C.

  • Class A is the most serious misdemeanor with penalties of up to 1 year in county jail and a fine of up to $6000.  Examples of a Class A misdemeanor in Alabama include theft (of property worth $500 or less), third-degree assault, third-degree domestic violence, and possession of marijuana for personal use.
  • Class B Misdemeanors can result in penalties of up to 180 days in county jail and a fine of up to $3000. Examples of a Class B include cruelty to animals, resisting arrest, and second-degree stalking.
  • Class C misdemeanor is the least serious and results in a fine of up to $500 without jail time. Examples of Class C misdemeanors include harassment, disorderly conduct, and public lewdness.

A felony crime in Alabama is a more serious crime than a misdemeanor and they are categorized as follows:
A capital felony is the most serious and is punishable by death or life imprisonment.

  • A Class A felony is punishable by imprisonment for life or a definite term of 10 to 99 years and a fine of up to $60,000. Examples of a Class A felony include murder, kidnapping and certain sex offenses involving minors Additionally, any adult convicted of murder with aggravating circumstances must be sentenced either to death or to life without the possibility of parole.
  • A Class B felony is punishable by imprisonment for two to 20 years and a fine of up to $30,000. Examples of a Class B felony is first-degree manslaughter, robbery and certain drug trafficking offenses.
  • A Class C felony is punishable by imprisonment for not more than 10 years and a fine of up to $15,000. Examples of a Class C felony include burglary, some theft and drug offenses.
  • A Class D felony is punishable by imprisonment for one to 5 years and a fine of up to $7500.  Examples of a Class D felony are certain theft, arson and drug possession offenses.

Defendants with previous felony convictions face sentencing enhancements for subsequent felonies. For example, if someone with three prior felonies is convicted of a Class D felony, they will face a higher sentencing range of one to 10 years.  

The Jefferson County Clerk of Court is an elected official whose responsibilities for Criminal Court’s administrative issues include receiving criminal warrants, receiving bail, creating the trial schedule, receiving fees, fines and maintaining court records.

A warrant is used to get someone to appear in court or to law enforcement.  There must be good reason to believe that the person is involved in a crime. The warrant gives authority to arrest the person and search for evidence for the investigation of the crime. 

A criminal summons is issued to request that a person appear in court at a particular time and date.  It does not involve an arrest.  A traffic ticket, summary citation or lesser misdemeanor could be considered a summons if you are given a court date.

A summary citation, commonly referred to as a ticket, is a criminal summons by a law enforcement officer either in person or via mail accusing the defendant of a minor offense, stating potential fine, listing the court having jurisdiction and instructions for addressing the issue. Defendants may or may not be required to appear in court or handle the matter by entering a plea via mail.

Fines are usually paid to the District Court or clerk of court and payment methods can be found on the District Court or Jefferson County Clerk of Court website. If you do not pay your fine on time, you can lose your driver’s license, have to pay additional fees or even have a warrant for your arrest.  It is important to read the instructions on the ticket issued by the police officer or court at the time of your arrest. For a parking ticket or summary citation, the fine amount and how to send payment should be on the ticket. 

Alabama Criminal Court System - How it Works

Municipal courts handle violations of municipal ordinances (city laws) and criminal misdemeanor offenses that occur within the city’s police jurisdiction.  

District courts in Alabama handle misdemeanor offenses that were not handled in Municipal Court.  It can also start proceedings for felony cases but cannot try the case. Every county has a state district court.  (Not to be confused with the Federal District Court.)

Circuit courts in Alabama have authority over most legal matters.  The circuit court handles all felony criminal matters. The circuit courts sometimes hear appeals from the municipal or district courts.

Juvenile Courts are located in every county in Alabama.  A juvenile is considered to be under the age of 18.

Specialty courts or problem-solving courts are being adopted in many states as a way to handle cases that involve non-violent and first-time offender cases in a way to where the offender can retain a job or responsibilities while following specific orders of the court as returned court appearances, periodic evaluations or testing for substances. Your local courts can address whether a defendant is eligible for a specialty court.  

The following link shows the counties in  Alabama that offer drug court: https://judicial.Alabama.gov/docs/drug_court_map.pdf

The Alabama Supreme Court is like our United States’ Supreme Court because it has a panel of judges that rule on matters that have to do with someone’s constitutional rights or policies and laws. The Alabama State Supreme Court deals with the state constitution or laws or policies. Sometimes the Supreme Court will hear criminal cases on appeal when there is question on the state laws or procedures that lead to the appeal.  The criminal cases are usually referred from the district courts of appeal.

FEDERAL COURT

Federal Court deals with crimes involving violations of United States laws.  Federal crimes include federal drug trafficking, federal tax evasion and fraud that crossed state lines and include crimes that occur on federal property as post offices or federal buildings.  

Cases involving crimes that involve the FBI or DEA or Immigration agencies are federal crimes. Terrorism is a federal crime. 

There are some differences in the Federal court system as compared to the Alabama state court system. For example, the attorneys who work for the courts are called United States Attorneys and Federal judges are called District Court Judges (not to be confused by local state district courts).  

Federal Magistrate Judges hear the case early on, but they do not decide on the cases at a trial like the Federal District Court Judges. In a federal case, a grand jury is used for indictments.

There are three federal districts in Alabama.
 

Courts

JEFFERSON COUNTY PROBATE COURT
1801 3RD AVE N # 101
BESSEMER AL, 35020
205-481-4100
BESSEMER MUNICIPAL COURT
23 15TH ST N
BESSEMER AL, 35020
205-426-8602
POLICE RECORDS
23 15TH ST N
BESSEMER AL, 35020
205-425-5713
BESSEMER MUNICIPAL COURT CLERK
1700 3RD AVE N
BESSEMER AL, 35020
205-426-8602
HUEYTOWN COURT DEPT
1318 HUEYTOWN RD
BESSEMER AL, 35023
205-491-5728
FAIRFIELD MUNICIPAL COURT
5231 COURT B
FAIRFIELD AL, 35064
205-783-6019
FULTONDALE MUNICIPAL COURT
1210 WALKER CHAPEL RD
FULTONDALE AL, 35068
205-841-1430
GARDENDALE MUNICIPAL COURT
1309 DECATUR HWY
GARDENDALE AL, 35071
205-631-7155
PLEASANT GROVE MUNICIPAL COURT
501 PARK RD
PLEASANT GROVE AL, 35127
205-744-1721
BIRMINGHAM MUNICIPAL COURT
801 17TH ST N
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35203
205-254-2161
JEFFERSON PROBATE COURT
716 ARRINGTON BLVD N # 130
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35203
205-325-5420
JEFFERSON COUNTY ALABAMA
716 ARRINGTON BLVD N # 330
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35203
205-325-5638
COMMITTEE TO ELECT PAT BALLARD
2214 2ND AVE N # 100
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35203
205-321-9600
HOMEWOOD MUNICIPAL COURT
310 W VALLEY AVE
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35209
205-332-6268
HOMEWOOD CITATION COURT
2850 19TH ST S
BIRMINGHAM AL, 35209
205-332-6268
IRONDALE MUNICIPAL COURT
101 20TH ST S
IRONDALE AL, 35210
205-951-1414
MOUNTAIN BROOK MUNICIPAL COURT
56 CHURCH ST
MOUNTAIN BROOK AL, 35213
205-802-3828
VESTAVIA HILLS MUN COURT CLERK
1032 MONTGOMERY HWY
VESTAVIA HILLS AL, 35216
205-978-0121

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