Kettering City Jail Criminal Court Process

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Criminal Court Process for Montgomery County Ohio

Information on the criminal court process for offenders arrested in Montgomery County Ohio and booked into the Kettering City Jail. From the arrest to the sentencing and everything in between.

Criminal Court Process for Montgomery County Ohio

Montgomery County Ohio Criminal Court System – Definitions

It might be helpful to define some words that will be used on this site, when explaining the Ohio Court System and how it works. The definitions on this site are for general information and not legal advice. It is always preferred to follow information given by your attorney or local authorities.

If you scroll down below this content, and the listing of the courts in Montgomery County, you will find a simple flowchart diagram and a video that will help you visualize the stages of the Criminal Court Process.

Arrest is when Ohio, Montgomery County or local police take a person into custody and start the legal process. The arrested person may or may not be immediately jailed. 

In less serious crimes, the person may only be given a citation ordering that they appear in municipal or Montgomery County court on a certain date. In cases involving more serious crimes, the person is usually placed in the county jail until an arraignment, or a judge decides the next step.

Booking is when the Montgomery County sheriff or local police gather information such as the detainee’s name, address and why the person is being arrested. Booking also includes fingerprinting, criminal history, investigation, and verification of identity. Bail for lower-level crimes may be set right after booking so the arrested can “bail or bond out” before being detained.

The prosecution, sometimes called “the government” or “the people” or “the state” is the side that presses the charges and seeks punishment for the offense. These are attorneys that work for the state of Ohio, Montgomery County or a city or town.  The prosecuting attorney for Montgomery County or the district is called the Prosecuting Attorney. A U.S. Attorney prosecutes federal cases.  

Jurisdiction is an important term in the court system that means whether a court has the obligation or duty or right to handle a case.  For example, if you run a red light in your town or city, a municipal court would likely have jurisdiction over your case, but the next town or city over would not have jurisdiction over your case.  If you attempted to flee from police when they attempted to stop you after you ran the red light, it becomes a more serious crime, and the municipal court might not have jurisdiction so you might be assigned to a higher-level court that has jurisdiction over the more serious crime.  

Jurisdiction varies from state to state and sometimes county to county.

Arraignment is when a judge determines whether the charges are supported by the prosecution’s initial evidence and tells the arrested what they are charged with, and the person says whether they are guilty or not guilty. At this time, the person is called the defendant, and the opposing side is called the prosecution. If there is reason to believe that the arrested is guilty, the judge will set bail conditions or send the defendant to jail or release them ROR (release on recognizances). An arraignment is not a trial, and the defendant is entitled to a trial within a reasonable amount of time after the arraignment.

Bail is money paid that is held by the Montgomery County or municipal court to make sure that the arrested does not flee the area before their trial. Bail amounts and other conditions are determined at the arraignment.

Once the case is over, the bail money is returned to the defendant. If a person does not pay bail, they remain in the Montgomery County Jail until their trial.  Bail can be denied if the court feels that the arrested would be a danger to others if released. Sometimes the court decides that there is a good chance that the arrested will show up for trial and not flee so they are released on their own promise, or recognizance without having to pay bail.

A bond proceeding is the determination of how much bail is to be paid and usually happens at the same time as an arraignment. During bond proceedings, the defendant can have an attorney present but does not have the right to an attorney. A judge or court officer in the {county extended} or municipal court sets bail. The clerk of courts can set some low-level bonds in Ohio.

In Ohio, judges and magistrates set bail and they rely on a statewide bail schedule, which sets out a recommended range of bail amounts for different offenses. Judges can still exercise discretion in setting bail above or below the recommended range.

It is always important to have family involvement after being arrested.  Not only can they make calls and communicate on your behalf (not all bond companies will accept collect calls), but family support will show the court that there are people who will make sure that the defendant makes it to court, not only for the defendant’s own good, but because they may have signed bond paperwork and responsible to pay if the defendant does not show in court. Chances of obtaining a bond from a bond company or clerk of court are better if family is involved.  

(There have been phone scams where a bond company calls and informs a person that their family member has been arrested and they ask for financial information.  A bondsman will not call asking for money without involvement of the arrested.)

A judicial public bond or personal recognizance bond is a bond where someone representing the defendant signs paperwork promising that the defendant will show up to court.  No money is paid to the court.  The personal recognizance bond is usually used in a minor misdemeanor or low-level felony.  

Cash percentage in lieu of bonds.  If the bond order permits, the defendant pays 10% plus a $25 fee to the Montgomery County Clerk of Court who then holds the money until the case is over. The amount is returned if the defendant is acquitted or the case is dismissed, or it can be used toward paying any court fines incurred by the defendant.

Surety Bond is when defendant pays a percentage of the bond amount (usually 10–15%) to a professional bondsman or bail bond company licensed to do business in Ohio, {county extended}. The bondsman then signs the bond on behalf of the defendant. The defendant does not receive any of the money back. If the bondsman feels the defendant is a flight risk, they can refuse to give a bond or charge a higher fee. For example, a bondsman may determine a defendant is a flight risk if they are from a state other than Ohio.

A Property Bond is a bond in which the bond is pledged in land or home real estate (mobile homes are not accepted).  Usually, the property must be in Montgomery County, and it must be worth at least the amount of the bond.

An Unsecured Bond is when the defendant is released without paying bail upfront, but they must pay the full amount if they do not appear in court.

A criminal defense attorney (also called lawyer or counsel) is hired or retained to represent the arrested as early as possible after the arrest.

If there is a chance that the case might go to trial and the defendant cannot afford an attorney, the 6th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution requires that the court provide an attorney. This is called indigent representation and a public defender or assigned attorney would represent the defendant in all proceedings. Indigent representation is only available misdemeanor and felony cases that could result in jail time, juvenile cases, and certain appeal cases.

In Ohio, the Ohio Public Defender Commission oversees indigent defense as a whole and contributes 40% of the costs and directly handles appeal and post-conviction cases. It is up to each county to fund most of the costs for criminal cases that could go to trial. There is a $25 fee for indigent representation in Ohio.  The following link is for the county public defender

For less serious cases or civil cases, there are pro bono volunteers who volunteer legal services for free or for a small fee. They often will hold clinics to teach people how to represent themselves in court or expunge their record which means to legally erase or eliminate a criminal or arrest record from public view. The attached link has a list of pro bono organizations in Ohio.

Many courts will provide forms and help for people who want to represent themselves, called pro se.  Here is a link for legal self-help in Ohio.

A district court can refer to the first level of the legal system, or a minor court. District courts are in the community.  A district court can also refer to a U.S. Federal District Court that hears federal cases. There are two U.S. federal district courts in Ohio, with offices throughout the state. It is important that you check the address of the court you are to appear in rather than to ask someone because that person might give you directions to the wrong “district” court. Being late for court can land you in custody as well.

Pretrial proceeding is the process where both sides (prosecution and defense) gather information, interview witnesses, request records, videos etc. Pretrial proceedings also include communications with the judge assigned to the case and these appearances are either in person or by on-line conferencing. Some pretrial proceedings may not require a defendant’s appearance, allowing an attorney to appear in their place. The information that is gathered is called discovery and both sides must share the information that they have gathered.  This information does not include conversations between the arrested and their attorney.

Most cases do not go to trial because both sides reach a plea deal, where both sides try to reach a reasonable punishment based on what was learned in the pretrial proceedings.  A plea deal can only happen if the accused person admits they are guilty in exchange for a lighter punishment.  The reason they must admit guilt is because it would not be fair to punish someone who claims they are not guilty.  There are times in plea bargaining when the prosecution agrees to give a lighter sentence in exchange for information leading to the arrest of a more serious criminal related to the crime.  

Trial is where both sides share their information in front of a judge or a judge and jury. After listening to all the evidence, the judge or jury decides the verdict which is whether the person is guilty or not guilty. If a court has only a judge hearing both sides, it is called a bench trial.  If a jury is selected, it is called a jury trial.  If the defendant is found not guilty, they are released.  If they are found to be guilty, the next step is sentencing.

Sentencing is the punishment that the judge decides the person should get. This could be jail or prison time, fines, community service, probation, or a combination.

Appeal is asking for a higher court to hear the case again at an appellate court.  If the accused person thinks something went wrong at trial or has new information that was not available during the trial or that the sentence is too harsh, the defense attorney can ask for an appeal. It is not unusual for an appeal when there is a long jail sentence, but an appeal can be denied if the appellate court feels that the original trial or sentencing was fair.

Ohio Felony vs Misdemeanor

There are two main types of misdemeanor crimes in Ohio.

  • A minor misdemeanor is when the potential fine for the offense does not exceed $150 without jail time. Examples of a minor misdemeanor include most traffic violations as speeding, running a red light and can also include violations such as open container and noise violations.  
  • A first-degree misdemeanor is when there is a possible sentence of 6 months in jail or a maximum fine of $1000 or both. Examples of first-degree misdemeanors include disorderly conduct, criminal trespassing, stalking assault and some drug offenses.

A felony crime in Ohio is a more serious crime than a misdemeanor and can be punished with more significant fines and jail time.  Felony crimes can be murder, rape, theft, aggravated assault, drug trafficking, kidnapping and identity theft.  In Ohio, serious felonies such as murder do not have a category and can hold a sentence of life in prison or the death penalty.  

The remaining felonies are divided into 5 categories. The following sentences are the maximum sentences for each crime.  
•    First degree felony or F1 is punishable by 3 to 11 years in state prison and a fine of up to $20,000.  
•    Second degree felony or F2 is punishable by 2 to 8 years in state prison and a fine of up to $15,000.  
•    Third degree felony or F3 is punishable by 1 to 5 years in state prison and a fine of up to $10,000. 
•    Fourth degree felony is punishable by 6 to 18 months in state prison and a fine of up to $5000 and a 
•    Fifth degree felony is punishable by 6 to 12 months in state prison and a fine up to $2500.

The Montgomery County Clerk of Court is an elected official whose responsibilities for Criminal Court’s administrative issues include receiving criminal warrants, receiving bail, creating the trial schedule, receiving fees, fines and maintaining court records.

A warrant is used to get someone to appear in court or to law enforcement.  There must be good reason to believe that the person is involved in a crime. The warrant gives authority to arrest the person and search for evidence for the investigation of the crime. 

A criminal summons is issued to request that a person appear in court at a particular time and date.  It does not involve an arrest.  A traffic ticket, summary citation or lesser misdemeanor could be considered a summons if you are given a court date.

A summary citation, commonly referred to as a ticket, is a criminal summons by a law enforcement officer either in person or via mail accusing the defendant of a minor offense, stating potential fine, listing the court having jurisdiction and instructions for addressing the issue. Defendants may or may not be required to appear in court or handle the matter by entering a plea via mail.

Fines are usually paid to the District Court or clerk of court and payment methods can be found on the District Court or Montgomery County Clerk of Court website. If you do not pay your fine on time, you can lose your driver’s license, must pay additional fees or even have a warrant for your arrest.  It is important to read the instructions on the ticket issued by the police officer or court at the time of your arrest. For a parking ticket or summary citation, the fine amount and how to send payment should be on the ticket. 

Ohio Criminal Court System - How it Works

Municipal Courts in Ohio handle cases, including trial, for involve offenses involving municipal (city or town) ordinances, traffic and all misdemeanor offenses.  If the arrested might be facing jail time, they have the right to ask for a jury trial in the municipal court.  The municipal court can conduct preliminary hearings for felony cases before forwarding them to a court of common plea for further prosecution or trial.
County Courts can handle the identical criminal matters that a municipal court can.  Cases are handled in county courts when there are no municipal courts available.

The Courts of Common Pleas (may also be called district court) have original jurisdiction in all criminal felony cases, meaning that a felony case can be handled from the beginning to end. in a court of common pleas and is also the court where trials are heard for misdemeanors.  There are Divisions that handle civil and criminal matters.  The divisions that handle criminal matters are the General Division for all criminal court proceedings, the Domestic Relations Division that handles divorce matters, domestic and date violence matters. The Juvenile Division has original jurisdiction over cases involving individuals up to age 18.  

Specialty Courts are being adopted in many states to handle cases that involve non-violent and first-time offender cases in a way to where the offender can retain a job or responsibilities while following specific orders of the court as returned court appearances, periodic evaluations or testing for substances.  Ohio’s specialty courts or dockets include drug courts, mental health courts OVI/DUI courts and veteran’s courts.

The following webpage will provide further information on the Ohio specialty courts.

The Ohio Court of Appeals hears appeals from the courts of common pleas, municipal and county courts.  Justices will review the procedures of the case and decide whether the case outcome will be changed, unchanged or moved to supreme court.

The Ohio Supreme Court is similar to our United States’ Supreme Court because it The Ohio Supreme Court is like our United States’ Supreme Court because it has a panel of judges that rule on matters that have to do with someone’s constitutional rights or policies and laws. The Ohio State Supreme Court deals with the state constitution or laws or policies. Sometimes the Supreme Court will hear criminal cases on appeal when there is a question on the state laws or procedures that lead to the appeal.  The criminal cases are usually referred from the district courts of appeal.


Federal Court deals with crimes involving violations of United States laws.  Federal crimes include federal drug trafficking, federal tax evasion and fraud that crossed state lines and include crimes that occur on federal property as post offices or federal buildings.  

Cases involving crimes that involve the FBI or DEA or Immigration agencies are federal crimes. Terrorism is a federal crime. 

There are some differences in the Federal court system as compared to the Ohio state court system. For example, the attorneys who work for the courts are called United States Attorneys and Federal judges are called District Court Judges (not to be confused by local state district courts).  

Federal Magistrate Judges hear the case early on, but they do not decide on the cases at a trial like the Federal District Court Judges. In a federal case, a grand jury is used for indictments.

There are two U.S. Federal Judicial Districts in Ohio.


65 S FRONT ST # 1
301 W 3RD ST # 301
DAYTON OH, 45402
301 W 3RD ST # 100B
DAYTON OH, 45402
301 W 3RD ST # 127
DAYTON OH, 45402
301 W 3RD ST # 301
DAYTON OH, 45402
301 W 3RD ST # 413
DAYTON OH, 45402
DAYTON OH, 45420
380 W 2ND ST
DAYTON OH, 45422
380 W 2ND ST
DAYTON OH, 45422
DAYTON OH, 45422
1201 E DAVID RD # 101
DAYTON OH, 45429

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